Type 1 diabetes is a genetic condition that’s generally diagnosed in children and young adults. Because people with type 1 diabetes don’t produce insulin, they need to inject insulin daily to help transport the sugar from foods to the body’s cells. The risk factors for type 1 diabetes aren’t fully understood; nevertheless, having a family member who has type 1 slightly increases the risk of developing the disease. Some environmental factors and exposure to viral infections have been linked to increased risk for the development of type 1 diabetes.
Type 2 diabetes is characterized by insulin resistance, which is the body’s inability to use insulin properly. Risk factors for type 2 diabetes include:
- Being obese and/or physically inactive
- Having a family history of diabetes
- African Americans, Mexican Americans, American Indians, Native Hawaiians, Pacific Islanders, and Asian Americans are at higher risk for diabetes
- Increasing age
- High blood pressure
There are a number of online tools available to patients to help evaluate their diabetes risk. The American Diabetes Association has a type 2 diabetes risk test available at http://www.diabetes.org/are-you-at-risk/diabetes-risk- test/ and the Centers for Disease Control National Diabetes Prevention Program prediabetes hazard test can be found at http://www.cdc.gov/widgets/Prediabetes/html5/iframe.html.
Hypoglycemia is defined as brutally Low blood sugar levels, usually less than 70 mg/dL. The danger of hypoglycemia increases in older adult- hood as a result of renal changes, slowed counter-regulation, insufficient hydration, use of multiple drugs, erratic food ingestion, and slowed caloric consumption.
Signs of hypoglycemia Include:
- Nervousness or anxiety
- Confusion, such as delirium
- Rapid/fast heartbeat
- Lightheadedness or dizziness
- Blurred/impaired eyesight
- Tingling or numbness in the lips or tongue
- Weakness or exhaustion
- Anger, stubbornness, or despair
- Lack of coordination
- Nightmares or yelling out through sleep
- Unconsciousness (American Diabetes Association 2015)
Management of Hypoglycemia
The American Diabetes Association Urges the following for the management of hypoglycemia:
- People at risk for hypoglycemia should be asked regarding symptomatic and asymptomatic hypoglycemia at every experience.
- Glucose (15 to 20 g) is the favored treatment for a aware person with overeating, though any type of carbohydrate which comprises glucose might be used.
- Fifteen minutes after treatment, if self-monitoring of blood glucose reveals continued hypoglycemia, the treatment should be repeated. 1 self-monitoring contributes to normal, the person ought to have a snack or meal to prevent recurrence of overeating.
- Glucagon must be prescribed for all individuals at higher risk of acute hypoglycemia, and health professionals or family members should be instructed on its management (ADA, 2015).
Anxiety and cognitive dysfunction may Hinder self- monitoring and overall diabetes care management. Visual acuity and good motor abilities may also hinder self-monitoring of blood glucose; therefore, help in deciding on the proper glucometer to meet the person’s needs may be required. In some cases, usage of a talking glucometer may be warranted.
During acuteIllnesses, increases in counter-regulatory hormones occur, and also the need for insulin and oral glucose-lowering drugs may often be higher than usual. This may result in the growth of hyperglycemia and ketoacidosis. Evaluation blood glucose and ketones more frequently (at least every two to four hours and document moderate to large urine ketones to the health care team.
Increase fluid intake and assure adequate hydration If plasma glucose is100, choose extra carbohydrate-containing food or fluids as tolerated (level of everyday carbohydrate sufficient to stop starvation ketosis is 150 to 200 g or 45 to 50 g every 3 to 4 hours).(NOTE: This additional carbohydrate may come from crackers, soup, frequent soda or juice, or sugar pills.)
- Continue oral and insulin glucose-lowering medications.
- Watch for signs of ketoacidosis: Nausea, vomiting, stomach Pain, greater irritability, sweet odor to breath, cracked tongue.