From the United States, one in 3, roughly 86 million, people have prediabetes. Of them, nine out of 10 don’t know they’ve prediabetes. Having prediabetes leaves it far more probable that one will develop diabetes; in reality, 15 to 30 percent of individuals with prediabetes will develop type 2 diabetes within 5 years (CDC, 2014). Among the very effective tactics to avoid the progression from prediabetes to diabetes would be to lose excess weight. No more than 5 to 10 per body weight loss in an overweight or obese individual with prediabetes will reduce the risk of developing cardiovascular disease. The American Diabetes Association especially recommends a goal reduction of 7 percent of body fat for those who have prediabetes to be able to stop or delay type 2 diabetes.
There are some factors which increase a person’s likelihood of developing prediabetes. The likelihood of developing prediabetes is elevated if one:
- Has a parent, brother, or sister with diabetes
- Is overweight;
- Is inactive;
- Has elevated blood pressure or requires medication for hypertension;
- Has reduced HDL cholesterol and/or high triglycerides;
- Is a girl who had diabetes during pregnancy;
According to Into the American Diabetes Association Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes 2015, asymptomatic adults should be tested for risk for future diabetes (i.e., prediabetes) regardless of age when they’re overweight or obese (body mass indicator ≥25 kg/m2 or even ≥23 kg/m2 in Asian Americans) also have one or more risk factors related to diabetes. For many patients and in particular those that are overweight or obese, testing should commence at 45 years old. If the evaluation results are regular, then repeat testing should be completed in three-year intervals (ADA, 2015). The Diabetes Association (ADA) calls prediabetes (or impaired glucose tolerance, IGT) a “category of increased risk of diabetes” and states prediabetes or IGT is present when:
- Fasting blood glucose (FPG, i.e., blood glucose) is 100 mg/dL to 125 mg/dL (5.6 mmol/L into 6.9 mmol/L)
- Two-hour postprandial glucose (PG) using an oral glucose tolerance evaluation of 75 g anhydrous glucose dissolved in water is 140 Mg/dL into 199 mg/dL (7.8 mmol/L to 11.0 mmol/L), or even hemoglobin A1c (A1c) is 5.7 to 6.4 percent.
For all 3 evaluations, the ADA asserts. That threat is constant, extending below the lower limit of the selection of the evaluation and getting disproportionately higher at greater ends of the range.
The American Diabetes Association Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes 2015 sets forth the following recommendations for Individuals with prediabetes to Be Able to prevent or delay the development of type 2 diabetes:
- Individuals with prediabetes should be referred to an intensive diet and physical activity behavioral counseling program targeting reduction of a percent of body weight and raising moderate-intensity physical action (like brisk walking) to 150 minutes/week.
- Follow-up counseling might be critical for success and based on the cost-effectiveness of diabetes prevention, such applications should be addressed by third-party payers.
- Metformin treatment for prevention of type 2 diabetes might be considered in those who have impaired glucose tolerance, impaired fasting glucose, or an HbA1c value of 5.7 to 6.4 percent, especially for people who have a body mass index ≥35 kg/m2, aged <60 Years, and women with prior gestational diabetes.
- At least yearly monitoring for the development of diabetes in those with prediabetes is suggested.
- Screening for and treatment of modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease is advised.
- Diabetes self-management education (DSME) and support (DSMS) programs are appropriate Places for people with prediabetes to receive Education and support to develop and maintain behaviors that may stop Or delay the onset of diabetes.